Unix Administration

Duration : 35 Hrs

Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a time-sharing configuration. Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of plain text for storing data; a hierarchical file system; treating devices and certain types of inter-process communication (IPC) as files; and the use of a large number of software tools, small programs that can be strung together through a command line interpreter using pipes, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality. These concepts are collectively known as the Unix philosophy. Kernighan and Rob Pike summarize this in The Unix Programming Environment as “the idea that the power of a system comes more from the relationships among programs than from the programs themselves.”
Unix operating systems are widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile devices. The Unix environment and the client–server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers.

Unit I

Unix/Linux History
  • What is open source
  • Linux origins
  • Red hat distributions
  • Principles of Linux
Unix/Linux Basics
  • Logging in to a Linux system
  • Virtual consoles and graphical environment
  • Changing your password
  • The root user
  • Changing identities
  • Editing text files
Help in Unix/Linux
  • The whatis command
  • The –help option
  • The man command
  • The info command
  • Navigating man and info pages
Browsing the file system
  • Linux file hierarchy
  • Important directories
  • Current working directory – pwd
  • Listing directory contents – ls
  • Creating files – touch, cat, dd
  • Creating and removing directories – mkdir, rmdir, rm
  • Coping files and directories – cp
  • Moving and renaming files and directories – mv
  • Changing directories – cd
  • Absolute and Relative Path’s
Users, groups and permissions
  • Creating Users - useradd
  • Creating Groups - grpadd
  • Linux File security
  • Permission Precedence
  • Permission Types
  • Changing Permissions – chmod(Symbolic and Numeric method)
  • Changing file ownership - chown
  • Changing group ownership – chgrp
Working on the bash shell
  • Command line short cuts
  • History command
  • Command line expansion
  • Bash variables
  • Scripting basics
  • Creating shell scripts
Standard I/O and pipes
  • Standard input and output
  • Redirecting output to a file
  • Redirecting output to a program
  • Combining output and errors
  • Redirecting to file and command – tee
  • Redirecting input from a file
Text processing tools
  • Viewing file contents – cat, less
  • Viewing file excerpts – head, tail
  • Searching for a string in a file – grep
  • Extracting text by column – cut
  • Gathering text statistics – wc
  • Sorting text – sort
  • Elimination of duplicate lines – unique
vi – an advanced text editor
  • Command mode
  • Insert mode
  • Execute mode
  • Navigating with vim
  • What is a process?
  • Listing processes
  • Finding processes
  • Signals
  • Sending signals to processes
  • Scheduling priority
  • Foreground and background jobs
  • Grouping commands
  • Crontab
  • Exit Status
  • The test command
Configuring the bash shell
  • Environment variables
  • Aliases
  • Preventing expansion
  • Login vs Non login shells
  • Bash startup tasks : profile
  • Bash startup tasks : bashrc
  • Sourcing files
  • Bash exit tasks
Finding and processing files
  • locate
  • find
Advanced user and group permissions
  • User and group id numbers
  • /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group files
  • System user and groups
  • Monitoring logins
  • Default permissions – umask
  • Special permissions for executables and directories
TheUnix/ linux file system in depth
  • Partitions and file systems
  • Inodes
  • Directories and inodes
  • cp and inodes
  • mv and inodes
  • rm and inodes
  • Hard and soft links
  • Checking free space - du
  • Archiving files – tar
  • Creating compressed archives – zip, unzip

Unit – II

Package management
  • Redhat package manager - rpm
  • Creating the yum repository
  • Installation and removal of packages using rpm and yum
  • Queries and verification using rpm and yum
  • Updating the kernel rpm
System initialization
  • Boot sequence overview
  • Bios initialization
  • Starting the boot process
  • Boot loader components
  • Grub and grub.conf
  • Kernel initialization
  • Init initialization
  • Run levels
Kernel services
  • The unix/linux kernel
  • Kernel images and variants
  • Kernel modules
  • Kernel configuration with /proc
  • Persistent kernel configuration
  • Accessing drivers through / dev
System services
  • Network time protocol – NTP
  • Secure shell – ssh
  • System crontab files
  • Daily cronjobs
  • The anacron system
File system management
  • Device recognition
  • Disk partitioning
  • Managing partitions
  • Making file systems
  • File system labels
  • tune2fs
  • Mount points and /etc/fstab
  • Mounting and un mounting file systems
  • Handling swap files and partitions
  • Mounting nfs file system
  • Auto mounting
Advanced user administration
  • Adding the new user account
  • User private groups
  • Modifying and deleting user accounts
  • Password aging policies
  • Group administration
  • Switching accounts
  • SUID and SGID
  • The sticky bit
  • Access control list
  • Configuring the quota system
  • Setting quotas for users
  • Reporting quota status
  • SELinux
Advanced file system management
  • Archiving tools – tar, rsync
  • Software RAID
  • Configuring RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 5
  • RAID testing and recovery
  • Logical volume Manager – LVM
  • Creating logical volumes
  • Resizing logical volumes
Network file sharing
  • Configuring FTP server
  • Configuring NFS server
  • Configuring Samba server
Servers Configuration
  • Configuring DHCP server
  • Configuring DNS server
  • Configuring Squid server
  • Configuring Apache server
Account management
  • Pluggable authentication modules
  • PAM operation
  • /etc/pam.d file
  • /etc/pam.d/login file
  • The system – auth file


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